Hemorrhoids are clumps of swollen or distended veins in the lowest part of your rectum and anus. They are common, affecting three quarters of all adults at some point in their life. Hemorrhoids can cause pain, itching or bleeding in some but in the vast majority they are harmless causing no symptoms.


They are divided into two categories, internal and external hemorrhoids. Internal hemorrhoids are higher up in the rectum than external hemorrhoids which are under the skin around the anus. Pain is typically not associated with internal hemorrhoids as they have no nerve fibers.


  • Anal pain or discomfort.
  • Anal itching or irritation.
  • Painless rectal or anal bleeding – usually small amount of blood on toilet paper.
  • Swelling or small moist bumps around the anus.
  • Lump near your anus, which may be sensitive or painful.

Risk Factors

  • Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Persistent vomiting.
  • Prolonged sitting or standing.


  • Prolapse of hemorrhoids.
  • Profuse bleeding.
  • Clot formation in prolapsed hemorrhoids also known as thrombosed prolapsed hemorrhoids.


  • High fiber diet.
  • Treatment of condition causing increased abdominal pressure.
  • Over the counter remedies such as hemorrhoid creams or hydrocortisone.
  • Sitz baths or soak in 3 inches of warm water several times a day.
  • Evacuation of thrombosed hemorrhoid  by lancing the thrombosed hemorrhoid followed by drainage of the clot.
  • Rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids.
  • Coagulation or cauterization of hemorrhoids.
  • Hemorrhoidectomy.


Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anus and lower rectum. They can be internal (located inside the rectum) or external (located around the anus).

The most common symptom of hemorrhoids is painless bleeding during bowel movements. Other symptoms may include itching, discomfort, or pain around the anus.

Hemorrhoids are often caused by straining during bowel movements, pregnancy, obesity, or a lack of fiber in the diet. They may also be caused by sitting for long periods of time or by chronic diarrhea or constipation.

Treatment for hemorrhoids may include over-the-counter medications, such as creams or ointments to reduce swelling and itching, or prescription medications to help with pain. In some cases, a healthcare provider may recommend a procedure to remove the hemorrhoids.

There is no sure way to prevent the development of hemorrhoids. However, there are certain steps you can take to reduce your risk, such as eating a high-fiber diet, drinking plenty of fluids, and avoiding straining during bowel movements. It is also important to practice good hygiene and to avoid sitting for long periods of time.

If you are experiencing symptoms of hemorrhoids, it is a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of your symptoms and provide you with the appropriate treatment. It is especially important to see a healthcare provider if you are experiencing bleeding from the anus or if you have a family history of colon cancer.

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